Interaction of recombinant CanPIs with helicoverpa armigera gut proteases reveals their processing patterns, stability and efficiency

TitleInteraction of recombinant CanPIs with helicoverpa armigera gut proteases reveals their processing patterns, stability and efficiency
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsMishra, M, Tamhane, VA, Khandelwal, N, Kulkarni, MJ, Gupta, VS, Giri, AP
Date PublishedJUL
KeywordsCanPI, H. armigera gut proteases, Intensity fading MALDI-TOF-MS, Pin-II, Plant proteomics, Plant-insect interaction

Six diverse representative Capsicum annuum (common name: hot pepper; Solanaceae) protease inhibitor genes, viz CanPI-5, -7, -13, -15, -19, and 22 comprising 1-4 inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs), were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant proteins were evaluated for their interactions with bovine trypsin, chymotrypsin, and Helicoverpa armigera gut proteases (HGP) using electrophoretic (native and denaturing) and mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF-MS in combination with intensity fading assays) techniques. These techniques allow qualitative and semiquantitative analysis of multiple and processed IRDs of purified recombinant Capsicum annuum proteinase inhibitor (rCanPI) proteins. rCanPIs showed over 90% trypsin inhibition, varying chymotrypsin inhibition depending on the number of respective IRDs and over 60% inhibition of total HGP. rCanPI-15 that has only one IRD showed exceptionally low inhibition of these proteases. Interaction studies of rCanPIs with proteases using intensity fading-MALDI-TOF-MS revealed gradual processing of multi-IRD rCanPIs into single IRD forms by the action of HGP at the linker region, unlike their interactions with trypsin and chymotrypsin. Intensity fading-MALDI-TOF-MS assay showed that CanPI-13 and -15, possessing single IRD and expressed predominantly in stem tissue are degraded by HGP; indicating their function other than defense. In vitro and in vivo studies on rCanPI-5 and -7 showed maximum inhibition of HGP isoforms and their processed IRDs were also found to be stable in the presence of HGP. Even single amino acid variations in IRDs were found to change the HGP specificity like in the case of HGP-8 inhibited only by IRD-12. The presence of active PI in insect gut might be responsible for changed HGP profile. rCanPI-5 and -7 enhanced HGP-7, reduced HGP-4, -5, -10 expression and new protease isoforms were induced. These results signify isoform complexity in plant PIs and insect proteases.

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Biochemical Sciences