|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Year of Publication||2016|
|Authors||Unnikrishnan, P, Srinivas, D|
|Book Title||Industrial catalytic processes for fine and specialty chemicals|
A majority of industrial catalytic processes use heterogeneous catalysts because of their engineering advantages. At present, heterogeneous catalysis covers almost 80% of the global market share. The demand for heterogeneous catalysis is growing annually. In 2010, it was about US 14 billion and expected estimation of it in 2015 is around 20 billion. Understanding at the molecular level the way surfaces of solids catalyze chemical reactions is a challenge in this area of research. This chapter introduces the fundamentals of heterogeneous catalysis, current industrial practices using solid catalysts, reaction steps involved in heterogeneous catalysis, conventional and advanced methods of catalyst preparation, catalyst characterization techniques, causes for catalyst deactivation, steps to avoid deactivation, and methods of catalyst reactivation.
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