Cloning, characterization and impact of up- and down-regulating subabul cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene on plant growth and lignin profiles in transgenic tobacco

TitleCloning, characterization and impact of up- and down-regulating subabul cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene on plant growth and lignin profiles in transgenic tobacco
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2012
AuthorsSirisha, VL, Prashant, S, D. Kumar, R, Pramod, S, Jalaja, N, P. Kumari, H, P. Rao, M, S. Rao, N, Mishra, P, S. Karumanchi, R, Khan, BMohammad, Kishor, PBKavi
JournalPlant Growth Regulation
Volume66
Issue3
Pagination239-253
Date PublishedAPR
ISSN0167-6903
KeywordsCinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, Lignin down-regulation, Subabul (Leucaena leucocephala), Tobacco
Abstract

Both cDNA including 5'UTR and 3'UTR and genomic clones of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were isolated and characterized from a pulp-yielding leguminous tree Leucaena leucocephala (LlCAD1). The deduced amino acid sequence shared high identity with orthologous sequences of Acacia mangium x Acacia auriculiformis (83%), Medicago sativa (83%), Nicotiana tabaccum (83%) and Aralia cordata (81%). Full length cDNA contained 78 bases of 5'UTR and 283 bases of 3'UTR, while the genomic clone contained 5 exons and 4 introns. Western blot analysis revealed elevated expression of LlCAD1 in seedling roots and shoots compared to leaves. Sense and antisense CAD tobacco transgenics showed increased and reduced CAD activity accompanied by a change in monomeric lignin composition. Histochemical staining of lignin in down-regulated plants suggested an increase in aldehyde units and a decrease in S/G ratio. Down-regulation of CAD resulted in accumulation of syringic, ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids compared to untransformed controls. These observations were validated by anatomical studies of down-regulated transgenic stems which showed thin walled, elongated phloem and xylem fibres, accompanied by a reduction in the density of vessel elements and amount of secondary xylem when compared to untransformed plants. Furthermore, Klason lignin analysis of CAD antisense transgenics showed 7-32% reduced lignin and normal phenotype as compared to untransformed plants. Such a reduction was not noticed in up-regulated transgenics. These results demonstrate a unique opportunity to explore the significant role that down-regulation of CAD gene plays in reducing lignin content thereby offering potential benefits to the pulp and paper industry.

DOI10.1007/s10725-011-9647-1
Type of Journal (Indian or Foreign)

Foreign

Impact Factor (IF)

1.99

Divison category: 
Biochemical Sciences