CFD modelling of almond drying in a tray dryer

TitleCFD modelling of almond drying in a tray dryer
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsChilka, AG, Ranade, VV
JournalCanadian Journal of Chemical Engineering
Date PublishedFEB
Type of ArticleArticle
KeywordsAlmonds, CFD, Drying, scale-up, tray dryer

Drying is important in many food processing applications, and particularly so in the dry fruits industry. This work is focused on developing computational models for simulating the drying of almonds in a tray dryer. It is important to quantitatively understand heat and mass transfer within and around a single almond particle as well as the particle-particle interactions and their implications for dryer design. In this work, we have developed a systematic CFD modelling framework for modelling almond drying in a tray dryer. A single tray filled with almonds (similar to 2 kg) were dried at three set temperatures viz., 55, 65, and 75 degrees C. Air relative humidity at the inlet and outlet locations, and the weight of almonds were measured during drying for each experiment. An additional set of experiments were conducted in which almonds were filled only in the half section of the tray, keeping the other half empty. The same amount of almonds were used, to have multiple layers of almonds in the tray, and the set temperature for the experiment was 75 degrees C. Flow, heat, and mass transfer in the tray dryer were simulated using commercial CFD software Ansys Fluent. The validated computational model was used to simulate various cases including larger and more trays. The developed approach and models will be useful to select the appropriate dryer configuration and optimize its design. The developed models will also be useful to identify suitable operation conditions for the drying of almonds as well as other food products.

Type of Journal (Indian or Foreign)


Impact Factor (IF)


Divison category: 
Chemical Engineering & Process Development